الإعلام بعد الثورة بسوريا يتحدّى الواقع السياسي

22 أبريل، 2016 • آخر المقالاتأبرز المواضيعالإعلام والسياسةالرقابةحرية الصحافةمقالات قصيرة • المحرر(ة)

علم سوريا

علم سوريا

 

منذ إندلاع الثورة ضدّ النظام الحاكم بسوريا في مارس 2011، شهد المشهد الإعلامي إنفجارا لعدد من الصحف والقنوات الإذاعيّة والتلفزية الوطنيّة بعد نفور أغلب السورين من متابعة قناتي “الجزيرة”  القطريّة و”العربية” السعوديّة. وهوما بيّنته ريما ماروش من جامعة أوكسفورد، في دراسة حديثة كشفت أنّ قرابة 100 مشروع إعلامي قد نشأ بعد شهر مارس 2011، متمثل في 60 جريدة ومجلة و9 قنوات تلفزية معارضة و25 قناة إذاعيّة.

وقد لاقت هذه المؤسسات صعوبة بالغة في أداء عملها الصحفيّ مع تعدّد المواجهات بين النظام الحاكم و”الدولة الإسلامية” بالبلاد والمعارضة، بعد أن سعى كلّ من هؤلاء إلى السيطرة على الإعلام وإيقاف من يعارضه، ممّا جعل الحياد الصحفي عمليّة صعبة.

كما أكدت  هيئة حماية الصحفيين  سنة 2014 أنّه منذ إندلاع  الثورة قتل 67 صحفيّا بسوريا. وقد صار ولوج الصحفيين الأجانب إلى التراب السوري  منذ إندلاع الثورة، عمليّة صعبة لاسيّما منذ سنة 2012. لكن يخاطر أغلب الصحفيين المراسلين بسوريا، بحياتهم من أجل إيصال ما يحدث هناك إلى العالم.

ومن أشهر مصادر المعلومات بسوريا وأول الناشئين بعد الثورة، نذكر ” شبكة الشام” التي تمتلك شبكة واسعة من المراسلين بكامل التراب السوري. وتنشر الأخبار  السياسيّة عبر صفحتها على الفايسبوك.

إضافة إلى ذلك، تطورت الصحافة المكتوبة رغم موجة الرقابة فنشأت صحف جديدة على غرار “سوريتنا” و”المسار الحرّ” . ولم تستمر أغلب التجارب الورقية نظرا لتكلفتها الباهضة أولرقابة النظام الحاكم أو لسيطرة الدولة الإسلامية على منطقة نشرها. وانتقلت بعض الصحف إلى النسخة الرقميّة محاولة تجاوز بعض هذه التحديات علما بأنّ فريق التحرير يتكون عادة من صحفيين شبان ومواطنين وكتّاب.

كما أنّ إرتفاع تكلفة الصحافة السمعية البصرية لم يحدّ من وجود قنوات تلفزية على غرار قناة “حلب اليوم” وقناة “دير الزور” و قناة “سوريا الشعب” وقنوات إذاعية مثل إذاعة “روزانا” و”البيان” و”نسائم سوريا” و”بداية جديدة”، بعضها محايد والبعض الآخر يمثل لسان إحدى الجهات السياسية. وتبث أغلب القنوات السوريّة، التلفزية والإذاعية من الخارج. ذلك أنّ الإذاعة تعدّ أفضل وسيلة إعلامية  للسوريين الذين أصبح أغلبهم منذ إندلاع الثورة يستعمل إسما مستعارا حين يدلي برأيه للتستّر على هويته.

وأشارت الباحثة إلى أنّ تمويل هذه المؤسسات الإعلامية يعدّ أهمّ صعوبة خلال هذه المرحلة التي يمرّ بها المشهد الإعلامي السوري. فإن كانت بعضها ممولة من قبل أحد الأطراف السياسيّة المتنازعة فإنّ أخرى تسعى إلى تمويل متعدد المصادر. وهوما يفسّر أنّ بعض المؤسسات قد انسحبت من الساحة الإعلامية لعدم قدرتها على الإهتداء إلى النموذج الإقتصادي الأمثل لتحقيق التمويل الذاتي والإستمرار.

يعدّ هذا البحث هو الأول من نوعه كدراسة مسحية وصفية للمشهد الإعلامي السوري بعد الثورة. وقد إنبنى على مقابلات مع مديري وصحفيي بعض المؤسسات الإعلامية وتحليل مضمون مواقع وصفحات فايسبوك  بعض المؤسسات.

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