الإعلام حول الإرهاب دون التسويق لمرتكبيه : المعادلة الصعبة

8 أغسطس، 2016 • آخر المقالاتأبرز المواضيعالأخلاقيات والجودةالتغطية الإعلاميّة • المحرر(ة)

 

أمام تهافت وسائل الإعلام بجميع أشكالها على نقل المعلومة والظفر بالسبق الصحفي عند تغطيتها للعمليات الإرهابية، طُرحت مؤخّرا فكرة عدم الكشف عن هويّة وصور الإرهابيين في الوسائل الإعلامية للنقاش في الفضاء الافتراضي وعلى الشبكات الاجتماعية.

قررت مجموعة من وسائل الإعلام الفرنسية التوقف عن نشر صور وهويات منفذي الاعتداءات الإرهابية. وجاء هذا القرار بعد حادثة ”نيس“ الإرهابية بجنوب فرنسا التي استهدفت يوم 14 جويلية تجمّعا احتفاليا والتي أودت بحياة 85 شخصا بعد أن أقدم انتحاري على متن شاحنة على دهس المحتشدين للاحتفال بالعيد الوطني الفرنسي. واتبعت عديد وسائل الإعلام قرار الحجب عملا بمبدأ عدم المشاركة في توفير منابر للتعريف بالارهابيين ولفسح المجال لمنفذي العمليات الإرهابية لتسويق ثقافة الموت. ففي حوار نشرته مجلّة الأوبس (L’Obs) الفرنسية، بيّن المحلل النفسي والأستاذ بجامعة باريس ديدرو التونسي فتحي بن سلامة أن هاجس البحث عن الشهرة واعتراف الآخرين يمثّل إحدى الدوافع الكامنة وراء إقبال من يعانون فراغا وجوديا على القيام بنفس ما نقلته وسائل الإعلام من جرائم إرهابية. إذ أن الشهرة المتأتية من فعل الشرّ، تمثّل أيضا نوعا من أنواع الشهرة التي يرغب في إدراكها من لا هدف لهم من الحياة. تتكوّن فئة كبيرة من المستقطبين من قبل تنظيم داعش وخاصّة في البلدان الأوروبية من شباب وجد في الأعمال الإرهابية وسيلة لتجسيد ”حقدهم الاجتماعي“ وتحويل إحساسهم بعدم الانتماء إلى المجتمع إلى أعمال إرهابية يعتبرونها ”بطولية“. قد تصعب السيطرة على هذه المجموعة الكبيرة، سريعة الاستقطاب، التي تدفعها بالأساس اضطرابات نفسية. من هنا طُرحت مسألة تحسيس قنوات الاتصال بمدى تأثير الرسائل التي تبثها على هذه الفئة من الشبّان. فقد تسقط وسائل الإعلام في فخّ التسويق غير القصدي للإرهابي ليتحوّل من مجرم إلى نموذج لهذه الفئة من الأشخاص الباحثة عن الشهرة.
واستشهد الدكتور بن سلامة بحرص منفّذ عملية ”نيس“ على التعريف بنفسه عندما عمد إلى ترك بطاقة هويته داخل شاحنة الموت. كما أثبتت الأبحاث أن مرتكب الجريمة كان قد أعلم في وقت سابق أحد جيرانه بأنه ”ماض نحو الشهرة وبأن العالم سيتحدّث عنه قريبا“.

لهذه الأسباب دعا الدكتور فتحي بن سلامة وسائل الإعلام إلى الكفّ عن نشر صور وهويّات الإرهابيين وعن توفير منابر للتنظيمات الإرهابية التي تستقطب هذه الفئة من الانتحاريين. دعوة تزامنت مع إطلاق عدد من نشطاء المجتمع المدني حملة على الانترنت دعوا فيها وسائل الإعلام إلى عدم نشر أسماء وصور الإرهابيين.

عن الحملة…

هي حملة أطلقها روّاد على الانترنات تحت اسم ”لحجب هويات الإرهابيين في وسائل الإعلام“ (Pour l’anonymat des terroristes dans les medias) من أجل مطالبة هذه الأخيرة بعدم توفير الفرصة ”لمرتكبي الجرائم الإرهابية“ للتمتع بـ”الشهرة“. مُطلقو الحملة أكدوا أنه لا جدوى من التشهير بمرتكبي الجرائم الإرهابية مع الكشف عن هوياتهم مع الحفاظ على حق أقرباء الضحايا في معرفة هويّات القتلة.

هذه المبادرة الموجّهة إلى رئيس المجلس الأعلى للإعلام السمعي البصري بفرنسا، أوليفيي شراميك (Olivier Schrameck Président du Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel) والتي لاقت تجاوبا من عديد الوسائل الفرنسية لاقت كذلك دعما من روّاد الانترنت وعديد الباحثين والجامعيين والصحفيين من لتحصد بعد أيّام قليلة من إطلاقها، أكثر من 150 ألف توقيع.

وإن لاقى قرار حجب هويات الإرهابيين استحسان العديد لكنّه فإنه قوبل كذلك باستياء البعض ممن اعتبره خطوة في طريق الرقابة الذاتية. رقابة لا معنى لها ولا فائدة تُرجى منها إذا ما نشرت وسائل الإعلام نتائج العمليات الإرهابية مع التحفظ على هوية مرتكبيها. فدموع الضحايا وصور وعدد الموتى تمثّل بالنسبة للإرهابيين دليلا على نجاحهم في بث الرعب. وهو بطريقة ضمنية رسالة ”تهنئة“ بنجاح مخططات وغايات من وراء منفذي الجرائم الإرهابية. منفذون يستمدّون قوتهم وإلهامهم من الدّين ومما ينتظرهم بعد الانتحار وليس من الشهرة التي قد توفّرها لهم وسائل الإعلام.

وسائل إعلام تساند وأخرى ترفض

ساندت العديد من وسائل الإعلام هذه المبادرة وتبنّتها بينما رفضتها مجموعة أخرى من القنوات الإعلامية الكبرى التي وصفت هذه المبادرة بمحاولة الضغط والتضييق على حرية الإعلام. ففي حين تبنّت كلّ من جريدة ”لوموند“ (Le Monde) والقناة الأكثر مشاهدة في فرنسا  ”BFMTV“  و إذاعة فرنسا الدولية (RFI) ومجموعة قنوات ”فرانس 24“ (France 24) مبدأ ضرورة حجب صور وهوية الإرهابيين، رفضت صحيفتا ”لوفيقارو“  (Le Figaro) و”ليبيراسيون“ (Libération) التخلّي عن ما اعتبراه حق كل مواطن في معرفة مرتكبي هذه الجرائم الإرهابية البشعة.

واختلفت نسبة ومدى تبني بعض القنوات لهذا المبدأ عن أخرى: بالنسبة لجريدة لوموند ، مثلا، فقد احتفظت بحقّها في نشر صور الإرهابيين التي يوفّرها المحققون بينما التزمت بعدم نشر صور لحياة الإرهابيين اليومية أو لما سبق يوم ارتكابهم الجريدة. أما بالنسبة لقنوات ”فرانس 24“ وإذاعة فرنسا الدولية و”BFMTV“ فقد التزم كلّ منهم بعدم بث صور الإرهابيين على موقعه الالكتروني دون التعرّض لما قرر بثّه من عدمه في التلفاز. وأمام هذا التذبذب من وسيلة إلى أخرى، خيّرت جريدة ”لاكروا“ وإذاعة ”أوروبا1“ الامتناع كليا والالتزام بعدم بث صور وأسماء وهويات الإرهابيين على أي محمل من محاملها المرئية أو المكتوبة أو المسموعة والاكتفاء بذكر الأحرف الأولى من اسم الإرهابي إن اقتضت الضرورة ذلك.

قد تختلف الآراء وتتباين حول تأثير نشر هوية وصورة الإرهابي في وسائل الإعلام على بعض الفئات من المجتمع، لكنّ الثابت في الأمر هو أن الشهرة التي توفرها هذه الوسائل بجميع أشكالها لمرتكبي العمليات الإرهابية أغرت مرتكب مجزرة ”نيس“ وغيره من المنحرفين وممن ثبُتت إصابتهم باضطرابات نفسية كانت وراء ضلوعهم في عمليات إرهابية فهل يتوقّف هذا النزيف بتوقّف نشر هويات المجرمين؟

 

 

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