الإعلام الجديد والتغيير السياسيّ في زمن الثورات العربيّة

29 يوليو، 2016 • آخر المقالاتأبرز المواضيعالإعلام والسياسةالرقابةالصحافة المتخصصةحرية الصحافة • المحرر(ة)

Article 13

غلاف الكتاب

 

دفعت القيود المفروضة على الإعلام القديم المواطنين بالعالم العربي إلى البحث عن قنوات جديدة للتواصل والفرار إلى العالم الإفتراضي. ويؤكد ”الربيع العربي“ استخدام الحركات الاحتجاجيّة لمواقع التواصل الاجتماعي للدعوة للاحتجاج والتظاهر بالعالم الواقعي لكن توجد عوامل أخرى وراء الإطاحة ببعض الأنظمة العربيّة.

هذا ما تطرق إليه الصحفي والباحث اللبناني يقظان التقي في أحد فصول كتابه الذي جاء تحت عنوان ”الإعلام والعولمة والديمقراطيات“، إذ أكدّ دور الإعلام الجديد في تعزيز الحرية والديمقراطية في جميع أنحاء العالم لاسيّما ببلدان الثورات. فحين يجد المواطنون فضاء لنشر وجهات نظرهم والتعبير عن آرائهم، يصبحون رافضين لـ ”سيطرة فوقية اعتباطيّة على حياتهم“. وتطورت صحافة المواطن مع إقبال المواطنين على الإعلام البديل من أجل التعبير بحريّة عن أوضاعهم بعد أن احتكرت بعض الحكومات ورجال الأعمال وسائل الإعلام التقليديّة، بالدول العربيّة.

في المقابل، أشار الكاتب إلى أنّ من في السلطة قادر بدوره، بإستعمال الانترنت لمراقبة المواطنين ومهاجمتهم. وقد انطلقت ثورات ”الربيع العربي“ مع ولادة عدد من المدونين الذين قاموا بالكشف عن المسكوت عنه بالعالم العربيّ، غير أنّ الحكومات العربيّة التي انتقدوها سعت إلى عرقلة نشاطهم وحجب مواقعهم ومدوناتهم الإلكترونيّة نظرا لما تتمتّع به من جرأة في إظهار واقع الشارع العربيّ وكشف التجاوزات والفضائح السياسيّة. فخلال ثورة 26 جانفي/ يناير 2011 قلّص النظام المصري من سرعة تدفق الانترنت ومن خدمة الهاتف الجوّال.

وأضاف د. يقظان التقي أنّ توسع وسائل الإعلام الحديثة مكّن المعارضين للسلطة من إيصال صوتهم إلى مختلف أرجاء العالم، حتى أنّ بعض القنوات التلفزيونية الفضائيّة التي تمتاز بهامش ديمقراطي في نشر الرأي المخالف قد استقبلتهم بمنابرها للتعبير عن آرائهم.

الانترنت لمساءلة الحكّام

أكّد الكاتب أنّ الانترنت هو ظاهرة العصر وهو ”أخطر الأحزاب“ في القرن الحادي والعشرين حتّى أنّ الإعلام الجديد فرضته ظروف الحتميّة التكنولوجيّة والرغبة نحو إصلاح الأنظمة العربيّة، لكن لا يستطيع هذا الإعلام أن ينهي الديكتاتوريات في الشرق الأوسط. ويضيف أنّه يمكن أن يكون الإعلام الجديد مفيدا في إجراء بعض التغييرات الديمقراطية الشكلية، فهو يستعمل لتقديم المساعدة والدعم اللوجستي للثورات والإعلان عن القمع الحكومي والمجتمعي. وقد تساءل الكاتب عن نسبة هؤلاء من تتوفر لديهم خدمة الانترنت ولديهم مهارات الولوج إلى مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي مقارنة بعدد المتظاهرين بمصر وتونس واليمن.

ذلك أنّ انفتاح السياسيين على وسائل الإعلام تحول دون تهربهم من المساءلة من قبل الشعب لاسيّما وأنّ حريّة الصحافة تعزز دور الجمهور في متابعة سلوك الحكومة واستغلالها للسلطة. وبإعتبارها سلطة رابعة، لا تكتفي وسائل الإعلام الجماهري بمهمّة نقل المعلومات وإيصالها بل تتولّى تسهيل عمليّة الاتّصال خلال عمليات تسوية النزاعات وحل الأزمات الدوليّة.

وسعت بدورها وسائل الإعلام إثر التدفق السريع للمعلومات إلى تحقيق مشاركة الجمهور في صناعة المادّة الإعلاميّة. ولم يعد الجمهور مجرّد متقبل بل أصبح طرفا مساهما في صناعة المادّة الإعلاميّة.

بالتالي رغم الدور الذي لعبه الإعلام الجديد خلال ثورات ”الربيع العربي“ والذي دفع الإعلام القديم إلى مراجعة دوره ودفع بعض الأنظمة العربيّة إلى التغيير، يرفض الكاتب أن توصف هذه الثورات بثورة الفايسبوك، معتبرا ذلك ”سوء توصيف للوضع“. ثمّ إنّ أول استعانة بوسائل الإعلام الإجتماعيّة للتعبير عن الإحتجاجات ودعوة الجماهير إلى المطالبة بحقوقهم وإسقاط الحكومات يعود تاريخها إلى 16 جانفي/ يناير 2001 والذي أدّى إلى ترك الرئيس الفليبيني جوزيف استرادا الحكم.

ويضيف المؤلف أنّ التكنولوجيا ليست سبب ما حصل في الدول العربيّة لكنها لعبت دورا بارزا. ويعدّ الواقع الإجتماعي الذي تعاني منه شعوب بلدان الثورات هو وليد هذه الحركات الإحتجاجيّة كبطالة الشباب وإرتفاع أسعار الغذاء.

نشير إلى أن هذا الكتاب قد صدر في شهر جانفي/ يناير 2016، عن دار رياض الريس للكتب والنشر بلبنان.

حقوق الصورة:  aleph-Iam

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